Csíkszereda has been the educational centre of the region since the Franciscans opened the first secondary school in Şumuleu Ciuc in the 17th century. The Paulines had settled in Şumuleu Ciuc as early as in the Middle Ages. At present there are eight secondary schools in the town offering a large variety of specialisations, where around 1000 young people sit for the final exams every year. At secondary level, theoretical, religious, vocational and art education are equally available.

Besides grammar schools, where the language of instruction is either the Hungarian or the Romanian, vocational schools, meeting the demands of the labour market, provide training for a variety of careers: economics, commerce, tourism, public nutrition, aesthetics and hygiene, construction and automation, environmental protection, electronics, mechanics, textile industry, forestry, wood processing, industrial chemistry, food industry. Following their studies in the specialisations above, secondary school pupils can obtain more than 20 qualifications. In the present days, in Csíkszereda, more than 4000 young people take part in the secondary educational system.

Higher education in the region has been developing significantly in the past 20 years. An important stage in this process was the establishment of the Csíkszereda Faculty of the Sapientia Hungarian University of Transylvania in autumn 2001. Now there are two faculties, attended by 733 students. Every year about 200 students graduate at BA level (after the completion of six-semester courses), obtaining degrees in the following fields: Agro-Alimentary Economics, Accounting and Management IT, General Economics, Marketing, Romanian Language and Literature – English Language and Literature, Universal and Comparative Literature – English Language and Literature, Applied Sociology, Communication and Public Relations, while at BS level (after completing eight-semester courses) students can graduate in Environmental Engineering and Environmental Protection in Industry, Food Products Engineering, Industrial Biotechnologies, Engineering and Management in Catering and Agritourism. At MA level, the university offers possibilities for specialisation in Leading and Organisation, Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development, as well as in Sociology. The university also organises conferences, summer courses and scientific assemblies, often in collaboration with partner institutions from the town and from Harghita County. The Szent István University of Gödöllő, in cooperation with Sapientia University and two other institutions, has founded the Agrarian Innovation Centre of the Szeklerland. Last but not least, Sapientia University has in view the establishment of an economic and IT cluster, with the involvement of companies operating in this field.

Education in Romanian language is also present at different levels in the town. Besides primary and secondary education, Lucian Blaga University residing in Sibiu runs distance-learning courses on law and economics. All in all, there are more than 1000 students following their studies in the institutions of higher education in Csíkszereda specialising in more than 30 areas.