In 2012 the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capital of Harghita County stood at 4895 EUR. The average earnings fluctuated around 240 euros (in 2011), a figure that is presumably slightly higher in urban areas. There are around 7000 companies in the county, more than half of which operate in the field of trade, manufacturing and building industry. The share of these sectors of the gross annual investments (ca. 200 million EUR) and the overall turnover (ca. 1900 million EUR) is even higher (about 70-80%).

There are 15 banks maintaining one or more branches in the county town: BCR Erste Bank, BRD Groupe Société Générale, Raiffeisen Bank, Transilvania Bank, OTP Bank, UniCredit Ţiriac Bank, Piraeus Bank, Volksbank, ING Bank, Carpatica Bank, Bancpost, C.E.C. Bank, Alpha Bank, Banca Românească, MKB Romexterra Bank.

Several leasing societies, accounting, auditing and fiscal counselling companies operate in Csíkszereda, and, according to the Romanian Bar Association directory, there are 61 lawyers providing various legal aid services. The number of counselling companies specialised in development, project writing, management and marketing is well above ten. At least five design and advertising studios provide competitive marketing material in the county town. An important design-specialist cluster has formed in Csíkszereda, 15-20 architect and design companies as well as individual offices with national and international recognition having their residence in the town. Promising enterprises have appeared in the field of information technology, specialising in software development and computer programming.

In 2012 there were about 1000 jobseekers in the town, who gained work experience mostly in the building industry, in mechanical, electrical and plumbing services, as well as in the trade and service industry.

Although Csíkszereda and the Ciuc Basin have a varied economic life, most of the viable enterprises operate in the domain of food industry. Beer industry has a several-decade-long tradition in the region. Heineken, the biggest brewing company in Europe, runs one of Romania's largest bottling plants in the town. Also, a number of mineral water bottling plants (e.g. Perla Harghitei, Tuşnad), market participants involved in the milling, bakery, pasta and alcoholic beverage industry, as well as dairy factories unfold their activities relying on foreign and domestic capital.

Other branches of industry are also significant, from which the plastic processing companies of national importance (e.g. Harplast), the transportation and logistic companies (e.g. Waberer's) and some production units following the traditions of the textile industry are worth mentioning.

One of the strengths of Csíkszereda is the building industry. At least seven building companies of over 1.5 million EUR have their site and headquarters in the town. The commercial function of Csíkszereda is also strong: one hypermarket selling building materials, 3-4 important warehouses, shops, distributors of cooling technology products, appliances, metalware and electrical products, closing devices, furniture, paints, chemicals and tools operate in the town. Trade in household goods is also represented by supermarkets and discount stores.

The catering industry is also well represented in Csíkszereda, with high standard hotels (rated at two or three stars, but often providing services of higher quality), guesthouses with wonderful panoramic view, comprising restaurants, well equipped conference centres, wellness and fitness facilities, car rental offices and even travel agencies.

Car dealers are also present in the town. Dealers and specialist car services of brands such as Škoda, Ford, Peugeot, Renault and Dacia, second hand car dealers have appeared in the past decades. Nine petrol stations, several car repair workshops, technical specialist shops and spare part dealers are also at disposal